Who is referred to “al-Awwal” in the part:
Allahumma khussa anta awwala zaalemin..
in Ziyarat Ashura?
In the Name of Allah, the All-Beneficent, the All-Merciful.
May Allah bless Muhammad and his Family and damn their enemies.
Al-Awwal (i.e. the first) is Abu Bakr, son of Abu Quhafa, al-Thani (i.e. the second) is Umar, son of Khattab, al-Thalith (i.e. the third) is Uthman, son of Affan, and al-Rabi’ (i.e. the fourth) is Mu’awiyah (may the wrath of Allah be upon them all).
The Office of Sheikh al-Habib